Active listening : Sustained, intense, sensitive and genuine listening to a client, and the content of the dialog.Includes non-verbal responses such as posture and eye contact [see Body language]. It involves listening at a ‘head’ level to the thinking and at a ‘heart’ level to the emotions underlying and implicit in the words
Acute : Immediate, transient, temporary, intense.
Advising : Telling other people what they should do rather than enabling them to find their own solutions. To recommend or suggest.
Affect (noun) : A subjective emotion or feeling associated with an idea, or some aspect of the self or an object. Examples are anger, euphoria and sadness. Affects may have different intensities such as flat, blunted, inappropriate, changing, weak, strong. “During flashbacks she experienced strong inappropriate anger with herself and a deep sadness for her partner”.
Affect (verb) : Influence, change.
Affirmation : talking or thinking to yourself positively. Reinforcing positive feelings, beliefs or actions.
Ambivalence : Simultaneous and contradictory attitudes or feelings (attraction and repulsion) towards a person action or object. See-sawing between something and its opposite, uncertainty about which way to proceed.
Anxiety : Apprehension, tension, unease or fear from anticipation of danger. The source of danger may be largely unknown or unrecognised by the sufferer.
Attitude : A pattern of more or less stable views opinions or interests established by experience over a period of time. Typically attitudes are likes and dislikes or affinities and aversions towards people, actions, objects, groups, situations and ideas.
Authenticity : The quality of being authentic, having originality, being genuine.
Belief (noun) : A trust, faith, or confidence in someone or something. An acceptance that something exists or is true, especially one without proof.
Body language : Non-verbal communication by largely unconscious behaviour and so signals. this includes posture, gesture, touch, eye contact, facial expression and non verbal speech factors such as voice, volume, and vocabulary.
Boundaries : The ground rules for counselling and therapy. The limits that bound the relationship between the client and those trying to help them. Needed for the safety and comfort of all concerned.
Catalyst : Something that enables a reaction or change but is not itself changed or consumed in the process.
Catharsis : a purification or purging of the emotions (e.g. pity, fear, apprehension) via counselling, therapy or other activities such as art or music.
Chronic : All the time.
Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (CBT) : A way of helping clients to change the relationship between events that happen to them, the emotions and feelings that they induce and the way they act as a result (behaviour).
Common humanity : involves perceiving your own experiences in relation to the wider experience of humankind, rather than more narrowly or assuming they are separating and isolating.
Compassion : Compassion involves being touched by the suffering of others and becoming aware of their pain without avoiding or shrinking away, whilst at the same time having feelings of kindness towards them and the desire help to alleviate their suffering.
Compulsive, compulsion : Caused by a desire that is too strong to resist : impossible to stop or control. See also Obsessive Compulsive Disorder.
Concrete : Being definite, direct and clear about events that have happened and the emotions experienced rather than being vague or generalised statements. Being clear and specific.
Condition : Away of
Confidentiality : Maintaining trust with the client by not sharing personal information about them without permission being granted. There are boundaries involved though: for example information may have to be shared if demanded by legal authorities or if the client might harm themself or others.
Conflict : A state where unreconciled differences of impulses, desires or tendencies are actively influencing the situation. A conflict may arise internally , within the self, or externally.
Congruence : Agreement , harmony, conformity, consistency.
Contract : The terms on which Counselling or Therapy are offered. Agreement may be written and signed by the user and provider of the service. In some cases it may be verbal e.g. via phone or internet on-line.
Core Conditions : The basic conditions that enable counselling to be more effective and efficient. They include genuineness, unconditional positive regard of the client by the counsellor, having empathy with the client and being non-judgemental regarding the client, their situation, their background and their environment. The objective is always to create a healthy and nurturing therapeutic relationship between the counsellor and the client to enable the client to flourish and move towards achieving their own potential.
Counselling : Counselling takes place when a counsellor meets a client in a private and confidential setting to explore the client’s difficulties. It provides a safe way to talk with a counsellor who will actively listen and help to explore and reflect on feelings, worries and experiences the client may feel unable to share with friends or family. The aim is for the client to find a way forward, come to terms with their feelings, resolve situations and explore better ways to cope and live. Counselling is not about telling you what to do, or give advice or guidance, but it is there to support you in making your own choices and changes you wish to make in your life.
Counsellor : A person who provides a counselling service.
Defence Mechanism : Usually unconscious adjustments made, by action or inaction, to avoid or defer recognising personal qualities or motives that might lower self esteem or heighten anxiety.
Delusion : A persistent false belief which cannot be changed by argument or evidence to the contrary but that is inconsistent with someone’s knowledge and culture.
Depression : The activity of sustaining a mood (set of emotions) or condition such as sadness, selective inactivity, difficulty in thinking and concentration. It may have attendant changes in behaviour such as appetite, sleep pattern, socialising pattern or exercise. There may be feelings of hopelessness, dejection and in extreme cases suicidal tendencies. Depression may be triggered by events such as the end of a relationship (grief or loss of job). If depression is severe and sustained it is referred to as Clinical Depression and should be referred to a doctor.
Discretion : The quality of behaving or speaking in such a way as to avoid causing offence or revealing confidential information. But also … the freedom to decide what should be done in a particular situation.
Disorder : A